Bitcoin will do this until it's absorbed it all Fiat in ...

Infinite Hope

Infinite.
What is with these people and their love for the word "Infinite"? (See also, "unlimited", "limitless", "boundless" and "eternal"). They can't seem to get enough of describing aspects of this practice, and the members themselves, as "infinite". But people aren't infinite. We're finite, and mortal, and very limited in our capacities.
What gives, freaky cult?
So then I spent literally three minutes on the math part of YouTube, and learned something about the concept of "infinity". Did you know that it comes in at least two varieties: "countable" and "uncountable"?
From what I remember, the difference is: "Countable infinity" is a never-ending list of actual numbers, also known as "natural" numbers, such that you could theoretically count your way to any one of them. Whereas "Uncountable infinity" is infinity in the other direction: to the infinitely divisible. Between any two defined numbers there are infinite others: you can always add to the decimal place, at any place. That's infinity too, but in a way that can't be counted... because you could never figure out what the numbers are in the first place.
One concept of infinity stretches out into the distance, while the other one infinitely subdivides into something smaller. Both infinite... but not in the same way.
I think the version of infinity being used by the propagandists over at Sniffing Glue-dism magazine would have to be the second kind, right? The kind that subdivides into infinity? Human capacity could never be "infinite" in the countable sense, in terms of days or dollars or output, but that second type, that uncountable type... a religion could wax wooingly about that one all day, and it would never mean a thing.
You could go around saying that space itself is infinite, or that each moment of consciousness is infinitely subdivisible, and you wouldn't be wrong, but you wouldn't be provably right, either. You could say that there are three thousand "realms" contained within each moment of consciousness, and what would it matter? Is there a practical difference between that many and 2,999? Is this information of any use to a physicist? Does it even sound smart? No, to all three. It sounds like a throwback to more primitive times, like how the ancient Chinese used the number "ten thousand" as their standard way of saying "a countless many".
Remember, infinity isn't a number... It's more like the space within which all the numbers can exist. It's a term for what lies outside the realm of understanding, and in math it's what you get when the calculations break down. It means "error", "paradox", "does not compute".
But our concern here is not to grapple with the concept of Infinity per sé. No. Once again this story is about a funny group of propagandists with a looong track record of using language as a weapon, as a tool for confusion. Not only do they have no interest in explaining how they're using a term, but they have no interest in you having a concept of it yourself Your confusion, muddleheadedness, the glossy look you get when your brain runs low on glucose... that's their currency. They want you in the mushiest of middles.
A word like "infinite" is key to their deceptive ways because it sounds deep, it indicates paradox, and it also has a range of different meanings, which makes it easy to fling around like a pile of monkey shit, without having to commit to any particular train of thought. It checks all the boxes.
Oh, look! The recent cover of the World Tribune: "One Youth, Infinite Hope. 6,000 in 2020".
Six thousand new members, eh? What a depressing little goal. (What happened, did no one survive the war of 50k?) And how very finite. Funny how, if one person is so infinitely valuable, they still require 6,000 of them for work in the salt mines.
"One person awakening to their Buddhahood can change the world— introducing the SGI-USA’s new, hope-filled focus."
So they're basically recruiting the Messiah?
"This is a call to action from the youth of America."
Written by three people who look a little too old to be playing high school students.
(And I'm not saying that these three are stuck in the world of delusion or anything, but the one in the middle is literally named Maya. Draw your own conclusion.)
"It is a cry from the depths of our beings to call forth and raise a new generation of peacemakers who have both the philosophy and means to transform our country from the inside out."
They've invested in Bitcoin?
"This year, 2020, marks the 60th anniversary of SGI President Ikeda’s first visit to America, his launching point for the worldwide spread of Nichiren Buddhism."
Oh, is that what that smell is?
"In 1990, he cited the book The Cycles of American History by Dr. Arthur M. Schlesinger, who discusses the theory that America returns to its founding ideals every 30 years."
BAH GAWD, everyone! They're about to drop some knowledge on us!!
"This was evident in the 1930s and 1960s, with President Roosevelt’s New Deal and the American Civil Rights Movement. Furthermore, the 1990s marked a monumental shift in the SGI-USA’s history, in which we returned to the foundations of faith, the Gohonzon, Nichiren Daishonin’s writings and President Ikeda as our eternal mentor of kosen-rufu."
WHOOOOA!!! What a lesson!! Every thirty years... shit happens! It happened back in 1990. It happened back in 1960. And yes, 1930 was a thing too! 2020 is DESTINED to be another year of shit happening! I can feel it in my bones!!
In fact, without 2020 happening, there couldn't even be a 2021! This year is the most important year that is currently happening! It may be finite in length, but it's completely infinite in terms of how important it is!! Just like YOOOOU, gentle reader! You may be finite in every way that matters, but you at least have an uncountable amount of hope. What does this mean? We don't know, because this religion has all the emotional complexity of a soda commercial.
"Now, 30 years later, the youth of America are resolved to create another tangible shift. How so? By welcoming 6,000 young people to the SGI-USA this year."
Infinity plus six thousand?
"These future leaders of justice and peace will be the antidote to our country’s turmoil—from gun violence and climate catastrophe to anxiety, suicide and the opioid crisis."
Theeese warriors of the tangible arts... they will be unleashed upon the population, not unlike bioweapons in the war for human revolution, to set about the work of completely eliminating guns, drugs, suicide, and the climate itself. Be afraid! Be very very happy! Most of all, be infinite...
"We may sometimes feel powerless as a single individual to effect change in the world."
But please, don't let reality stand in your way...
"Our Buddhist practice, however, teaches us that “one is the mother of ten thousand”
See? Ten thousand.
"Everything starts from one inspired person, determined to make a difference."
True, but then would it also be fair to say that the vast majority of plans end in the mind of that same person? See, I'm more of a glass-infinitely-empty kind of Icchantika.
"When all the members of the SGI-USA stand up with the resolve to help one youth rise up with this same mission and awareness, we will undoubtedly create a tidal wave of hope throughout our country and the world."
Woo-hoo! Being religious hoo-has will surely change the world!! Nobody's tried that one yet!
And can we talk about phrasing? When it's not a war we're emulating, it has to be a devastating natural disaster such a tidal wave? You'd think the Japanese people would have had enough of both by now! Chill the fuck out already.
"The one youth we introduce will not only gain infinite hope in their own lives but will also be the source of infinite hope for their families, communities and society."
An indeterminate amount of hope, yes...
"We have a responsibility for the sake of humanity to stand up in this significant year. Let’s not be bystanders of history. Let’s be active participants by giving infinite hope to one young person."
Well, gee, that sounds all sorts of wrong... Do we all have to share the same person?
"This year, we are resolved to break through our own limitations, saturate our communities with the seeds of the Mystic Law..."
Ewwwww...
"...and nourish them through heartfelt dialogues and friendships, with one youth after another."
Ugh!!!
"What greater way is there for us to express our appreciation to our mentor in this 60th year of worldwide kosen-rufu?! Will you join us?"
I don't know. This all sounds a little too messy for my liking. I also can't decide if you guys are hippies or fascists, or just plain old energy vampires, and it sort of freaks me out.
Could I have infinite time to mull it over?
Thanks! Text you...uh...never.
submitted by ToweringIsle13 to sgiwhistleblowers [link] [comments]

What are Bitcoin and Other Cryptocurrencies Backed By?

Bitcoin was created back in 2009 and became the first cryptocurrency ever designed. Cryptocurrencies have become increasingly popular in the last few years as they offer an efficient and decentralized way of transferring money.
Cryptocurrencies have always been an alternative to banks and fiat money. But why do they have any value at all and who dictates what they are worth? The value of Bitcoin is really calculated through supply and demand. The digital asset itself is backed by nothing more than perhaps the blockchain ledger.
Every single cryptocurrency uses a blockchain ledger, a system that records transactions between two or more parties in a verifiable and permanent way. This certainly adds value to Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies. However, it is not what determines their price.
Why Things Have Value
Why does anything have any value at all? It has mostly because of supply and demand. Traditional currencies, for instance, are only backed by the government that issued them. Digital money, like Bitcoin, is not backed or linked to any physical reserves like gold and can certainly lose value due to different factors.
Cryptocurrencies have value because they require ‘work’ to exist. Cryptocurrencies are maintained thanks to the mining process, a process in which transactions are verified by different people. This process requires a certain amount of work, electricity, and money.
Key Factors That Affect The Value of Cryptocurrencies
Since most cryptocurrencies are not physically backed by anything, their value is determined through supply and demand based on a few important factors. One of the biggest advantages of cryptocurrencies is scarcity. The supply of most cryptocurrencies is fixed, and, unlike traditional currencies, no one can issue more than the maximum limit. This means that cryptocurrencies are deflationary by nature.
Another key factor that benefits cryptocurrencies is divisibility. Any cryptocurrency can be divided into smaller units. A simple change in Bitcoin’s code could allow the digital asset to be divided into infinitely smaller units at any time.
Additionally, transferring cryptocurrencies can be extremely fast and cheap compared to traditional methods. Fees are somewhat fixed no matter the amount you send, which means that theoretically you could send 1 million Bitcoins to someone and pay only a few dollars in fees (or even less).
In a way, one could say that Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies are backed by the public’s faith in them as they have realized that the current monetary system is not as robust as one might think.
Why Are Cryptocurrencies so Volatile Then?
In comparison to traditional currencies and even stocks, cryptocurrencies are far more volatile, meaning that the current price of any given crypto can change drastically in hours. It’s quite common to see Bitcoin’s price go up or down 5-10% within a few days. In fact, even in periods of low volatility, most cryptocurrencies still experience price moves of up to 1-2%, which is considered extremely high in traditional markets.
The explanation, however, is quite simple. Cryptocurrencies, in general, lack the liquidity that the rest of the markets enjoy. According to statistics from Statista, the average daily turnover in the global foreign exchange market was around $6.5 trillion daily. The cryptocurrency market, on average, sees around $80 billion in daily trading volume, and according to various sources, a lot of the volume is actually fake.
The problem with illiquidity is that someone who wants to sell or buy a huge amount of Bitcoin or any cryptocurrency will simply ‘eat’ all the orders in the order book of the exchange, catapulting the price up or crashing it. That is the only reason why cryptocurrencies, in general, are extremely volatile.
Some Cryptocurrencies Are Actually Backed by Things
There are, however, some cryptocurrencies that are backed by gold, assets, and even fiat money. Tether (USDT) became the most popular cryptocurrency backed by fiat, later known as a ‘stablecoin’.
Stablecoins
A stablecoin is designed to always be worth $1.00 by maintaining 1 dollar in some sort of reserve. The first stablecoin to become widely popular was Tether, however, there was a lot of controversy surrounding it. Most of the criticism came from the fact that Tether Limited was unable to prove they actually have the funds to cover all the Tether issued.
Additionally, on 30 April 2019, Tether Limited’s lawyer actually admitted that each coin is only backed by $0.74 in cash.
Currently, there are over a dozen stablecoins that are backed by fiat, commodities, and even cryptocurrencies. TrueUSD is similar to Tether but it is considered to be one of the most reliable stablecoins currently as the company behind it has been extremely transparent and conducted an independent audit back in March 2019.
A more complex stablecoin is Dai, which is backed by Ethereum and pegged to the dollar. The system behind Dai basically locks Ethereum in a public contract. If the value of Dai distances too far from $1, the system will make use of the contract to stabilize it back. There is, however, a small problem: Dai is not entirely decentralized as the technology behind it is being monitored by the Maker Foundation.
DigixDAO is another stablecoin and it’s backed by bars of actual gold. It is an ERC-20 token created back in 2014. The digital asset is entirely decentralized and autonomous and can in fact be extended to be backed by other precious metals and even physical assets. According to the company, the gold is stored in custodial vaults at the Singapore Safe House, and 1 DGX will always equal 1 gram of gold.
Cryptocurrencies Backed by Assets
Not all cryptocurrencies backed by assets are stablecoins. For instance, the first oil-backed cryptocurrency was introduced by Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro back in 2017. El Petro, although highly criticized, is supposedly the first cryptocurrency to be backed by oil thanks to the country’s huge oil and mineral reserves.
Petro is, however, not pegged to anything, and its value can increase or decrease at any given time.
Tokenization of Assets
Something that has become quite popular over the last few years is the tokenization of traditional stocks and assets. There are countless blockchain startups tokenizing almost anything to represent ownership.
The tokenization of assets brings numerous benefits like greater liquidity, more transparency, cheaper and faster transactions, and more accessibility. Tokenization itself is quite difficult to regulate, and all tokenization assets have to be compliant with the law, something that issuers struggle to achieve.
Conclusion
While traditional cryptocurrencies are not necessarily backed by anything physical, they still hold a lot of value solely based on supply and demand. This is the case with numerous other assets and even fiat money.
Cryptocurrencies have come a long way and there is a wide variety of them. Stablecoins are the most popular when it comes to asset-backed cryptocurrencies. They serve as an alternative to fiat money and bring a lot of liquidity to the market. There are definitely concerns as people question their stability, however, they have become an important factor in the market.
Additionally, other projects aside from stablecoins have implemented asset-backed cryptocurrencies. There are numerous cryptocurrencies out there backed by precious metals, physical assets, stocks, and even other cryptocurrencies. We are definitely going to see even more in the near future as they bring a lot more security to investors and the crypto space in general.

SwapSpace team is always ready for discussion. You can drop an email with your suggestions and questions to [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]) Join our social networks: Twitter, Medium, Facebook, Telegram The best rates on https://swapspace.co/
submitted by SwapSpace_co to CryptoTechnology [link] [comments]

What are Bitcoin and Other Cryptocurrencies Backed By?

Bitcoin was created back in 2009 and became the first cryptocurrency ever designed. Cryptocurrencies have become increasingly popular in the last few years as they offer an efficient and decentralized way of transferring money.
Cryptocurrencies have always been an alternative to banks and fiat money. But why do they have any value at all and who dictates what they are worth? The value of Bitcoin is really calculated through supply and demand. The digital asset itself is backed by nothing more than perhaps the blockchain ledger.
Every single cryptocurrency uses a blockchain ledger, a system that records transactions between two or more parties in a verifiable and permanent way. This certainly adds value to Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies. However, it is not what determines their price.
Why Things Have Value
Why does anything have any value at all? It has mostly because of supply and demand. Traditional currencies, for instance, are only backed by the government that issued them. Digital money, like Bitcoin, is not backed or linked to any physical reserves like gold and can certainly lose value due to different factors.
Cryptocurrencies have value because they require ‘work’ to exist. Cryptocurrencies are maintained thanks to the mining process, a process in which transactions are verified by different people. This process requires a certain amount of work, electricity, and money.
Key Factors That Affect The Value of Cryptocurrencies
Since most cryptocurrencies are not physically backed by anything, their value is determined through supply and demand based on a few important factors. One of the biggest advantages of cryptocurrencies is scarcity. The supply of most cryptocurrencies is fixed, and, unlike traditional currencies, no one can issue more than the maximum limit. This means that cryptocurrencies are deflationary by nature.
Another key factor that benefits cryptocurrencies is divisibility. Any cryptocurrency can be divided into smaller units. A simple change in Bitcoin’s code could allow the digital asset to be divided into infinitely smaller units at any time.
Additionally, transferring cryptocurrencies can be extremely fast and cheap compared to traditional methods. Fees are somewhat fixed no matter the amount you send, which means that theoretically you could send 1 million Bitcoins to someone and pay only a few dollars in fees (or even less).
In a way, one could say that Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies are backed by the public’s faith in them as they have realized that the current monetary system is not as robust as one might think.
Why Are Cryptocurrencies so Volatile Then?
In comparison to traditional currencies and even stocks, cryptocurrencies are far more volatile, meaning that the current price of any given crypto can change drastically in hours. It’s quite common to see Bitcoin’s price go up or down 5-10% within a few days. In fact, even in periods of low volatility, most cryptocurrencies still experience price moves of up to 1-2%, which is considered extremely high in traditional markets.
The explanation, however, is quite simple. Cryptocurrencies, in general, lack the liquidity that the rest of the markets enjoy. According to statistics from Statista, the average daily turnover in the global foreign exchange market was around $6.5 trillion daily. The cryptocurrency market, on average, sees around $80 billion in daily trading volume, and according to various sources, a lot of the volume is actually fake.
The problem with illiquidity is that someone who wants to sell or buy a huge amount of Bitcoin or any cryptocurrency will simply ‘eat’ all the orders in the order book of the exchange, catapulting the price up or crashing it. That is the only reason why cryptocurrencies, in general, are extremely volatile.
Some Cryptocurrencies Are Actually Backed by Things
There are, however, some cryptocurrencies that are backed by gold, assets, and even fiat money. Tether (USDT) became the most popular cryptocurrency backed by fiat, later known as a ‘stablecoin’.
Stablecoins
A stablecoin is designed to always be worth $1.00 by maintaining 1 dollar in some sort of reserve. The first stablecoin to become widely popular was Tether, however, there was a lot of controversy surrounding it. Most of the criticism came from the fact that Tether Limited was unable to prove they actually have the funds to cover all the Tether issued.
Additionally, on 30 April 2019, Tether Limited’s lawyer actually admitted that each coin is only backed by $0.74 in cash.
Currently, there are over a dozen stablecoins that are backed by fiat, commodities, and even cryptocurrencies. TrueUSD is similar to Tether but it is considered to be one of the most reliable stablecoins currently as the company behind it has been extremely transparent and conducted an independent audit back in March 2019.
A more complex stablecoin is Dai, which is backed by Ethereum and pegged to the dollar. The system behind Dai basically locks Ethereum in a public contract. If the value of Dai distances too far from $1, the system will make use of the contract to stabilize it back. There is, however, a small problem: Dai is not entirely decentralized as the technology behind it is being monitored by the Maker Foundation.
DigixDAO is another stablecoin and it’s backed by bars of actual gold. It is an ERC-20 token created back in 2014. The digital asset is entirely decentralized and autonomous and can in fact be extended to be backed by other precious metals and even physical assets. According to the company, the gold is stored in custodial vaults at the Singapore Safe House, and 1 DGX will always equal 1 gram of gold.
Cryptocurrencies Backed by Assets
Not all cryptocurrencies backed by assets are stablecoins. For instance, the first oil-backed cryptocurrency was introduced by Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro back in 2017. El Petro, although highly criticized, is supposedly the first cryptocurrency to be backed by oil thanks to the country’s huge oil and mineral reserves.
Petro is, however, not pegged to anything, and its value can increase or decrease at any given time.
Tokenization of Assets
Something that has become quite popular over the last few years is the tokenization of traditional stocks and assets. There are countless blockchain startups tokenizing almost anything to represent ownership.
The tokenization of assets brings numerous benefits like greater liquidity, more transparency, cheaper and faster transactions, and more accessibility. Tokenization itself is quite difficult to regulate, and all tokenization assets have to be compliant with the law, something that issuers struggle to achieve.
Conclusion
While traditional cryptocurrencies are not necessarily backed by anything physical, they still hold a lot of value solely based on supply and demand. This is the case with numerous other assets and even fiat money.
Cryptocurrencies have come a long way and there is a wide variety of them. Stablecoins are the most popular when it comes to asset-backed cryptocurrencies. They serve as an alternative to fiat money and bring a lot of liquidity to the market. There are definitely concerns as people question their stability, however, they have become an important factor in the market.
Additionally, other projects aside from stablecoins have implemented asset-backed cryptocurrencies. There are numerous cryptocurrencies out there backed by precious metals, physical assets, stocks, and even other cryptocurrencies. We are definitely going to see even more in the near future as they bring a lot more security to investors and the crypto space in general.

SwapSpace team is always ready for discussion. You can drop an email with your suggestions and questions to [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]) Join our social networks: Twitter, Medium, Facebook, Telegram The best rates on https://swapspace.co/
submitted by SwapSpace_co to CoinBase [link] [comments]

My best attempt to simplify the math of a 10 million dollar Bitcoin [1₿=10million]

🤖₿ So 21 million #bitcoins will ever exist, unlike the dollar that is infinitely printed, which is why it loses value. A #bitcoin is infinitely divisible so no matter how expensive 1 coin gets, infinite fractions of it can be purchased and used. You don't have to buy 1 coin. It's value is the money and things of value behind it÷the number of bitcoins that exist. There are 36 million millionaires in the world today, so by the time every 1 of them try to grab a full bitcoin when it becomes a must have investment, there won't be enough for all of them. That easily pushes 1 coin past 1 million dollars in value when they try to grab a whole coin. Then there are 260 trillion in global #stock markets through #stocks and #derivatives, or what others call #institutionalmoney. The the first US #exchanges are opening to bitcoin and #cryptocurrencies this summer. Once bitcoin is allowed to be traded for stocks, which is only a matter of time now with the #stockmarket opening to the #cryptocurrency markets already, that makes that 260 trillion open to be put behind bitcoin. When that starts to happen; 260 trillion divided by 21 million #bitcoins, puts #1bitcoin over 10 million dollars a coin, or 12 million a coin to be exact. This will likely happen in our lifetimes with everything happening now. That makes every dollar invested even at an 11k price, to be worth 1k$ in possibly 10 years at this rate. ₿🤖
There's more to it like the halvings; about every 4 years the distribution of bitcoin going out gets cut in half. The first 4 years 10.5 million bitcoins went out and the demand and use was small so the price was cheap. From less than a penny cheap in 2009, to over 1000$ in 2013 after it first halved. After that from 2013 through 2016 with only 5.25 million bitcoins were being mined/made; then it halved again in 2016 for a second time & the price ran up to 20k a coin because the supply got cut in half to only 2.125 million bitcoins being created with higher demand and use cases. This is where we are now until summer 2020 when the 3rd halving will happen. After that, the next halving will only have 1.05125 million new #bitcoins getting created until 2024, with 10 trillion in value of institutional markets opening up to it. The potential for the next halving with the halved new coin supply, plus increased demand and use cases is anywhere from 100k to 500k in the short term by late 2020 or early 2021, then another 80+% drop as usual. But in short, at the current prices you're in a good position to be fine after the next correction/drop that'll come after the upcoming halving skyrockets the price. I for one won't stop accumulating till we break 20k again, aka the last all time high. My golden rule is to never buy during new all time high prices, and thankfully we're still under it. So learn about it now and stack up before we break 20k again, because after we do the growth will be stupid fast.
Calculated plug ins for 1 million and 10 million
submitted by BuyBitcoinWhileItsLo to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

What are Bitcoin and Other Cryptocurrencies Backed By?

Bitcoin was created back in 2009 and became the first cryptocurrency ever designed. Cryptocurrencies have become increasingly popular in the last few years as they offer an efficient and decentralized way of transferring money.
Cryptocurrencies have always been an alternative to banks and fiat money. But why do they have any value at all and who dictates what they are worth? The value of Bitcoin is really calculated through supply and demand. The digital asset itself is backed by nothing more than perhaps the blockchain ledger.
Every single cryptocurrency uses a blockchain ledger, a system that records transactions between two or more parties in a verifiable and permanent way. This certainly adds value to Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies. However, it is not what determines their price.
Why Things Have Value
Why does anything have any value at all? It has mostly because of supply and demand. Traditional currencies, for instance, are only backed by the government that issued them. Digital money, like Bitcoin, is not backed or linked to any physical reserves like gold and can certainly lose value due to different factors.
Cryptocurrencies have value because they require ‘work’ to exist. Cryptocurrencies are maintained thanks to the mining process, a process in which transactions are verified by different people. This process requires a certain amount of work, electricity, and money.
Key Factors That Affect The Value of Cryptocurrencies
Since most cryptocurrencies are not physically backed by anything, their value is determined through supply and demand based on a few important factors. One of the biggest advantages of cryptocurrencies is scarcity. The supply of most cryptocurrencies is fixed, and, unlike traditional currencies, no one can issue more than the maximum limit. This means that cryptocurrencies are deflationary by nature.
Another key factor that benefits cryptocurrencies is divisibility. Any cryptocurrency can be divided into smaller units. A simple change in Bitcoin’s code could allow the digital asset to be divided into infinitely smaller units at any time.
Additionally, transferring cryptocurrencies can be extremely fast and cheap compared to traditional methods. Fees are somewhat fixed no matter the amount you send, which means that theoretically you could send 1 million Bitcoins to someone and pay only a few dollars in fees (or even less).
In a way, one could say that Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies are backed by the public’s faith in them as they have realized that the current monetary system is not as robust as one might think.
Why Are Cryptocurrencies so Volatile Then?
In comparison to traditional currencies and even stocks, cryptocurrencies are far more volatile, meaning that the current price of any given crypto can change drastically in hours. It’s quite common to see Bitcoin’s price go up or down 5-10% within a few days. In fact, even in periods of low volatility, most cryptocurrencies still experience price moves of up to 1-2%, which is considered extremely high in traditional markets.
The explanation, however, is quite simple. Cryptocurrencies, in general, lack the liquidity that the rest of the markets enjoy. According to statistics from Statista, the average daily turnover in the global foreign exchange market was around $6.5 trillion daily. The cryptocurrency market, on average, sees around $80 billion in daily trading volume, and according to various sources, a lot of the volume is actually fake.
The problem with illiquidity is that someone who wants to sell or buy a huge amount of Bitcoin or any cryptocurrency will simply ‘eat’ all the orders in the order book of the exchange, catapulting the price up or crashing it. That is the only reason why cryptocurrencies, in general, are extremely volatile.
Some Cryptocurrencies Are Actually Backed by Things
There are, however, some cryptocurrencies that are backed by gold, assets, and even fiat money. Tether (USDT) became the most popular cryptocurrency backed by fiat, later known as a ‘stablecoin’.
Stablecoins
A stablecoin is designed to always be worth $1.00 by maintaining 1 dollar in some sort of reserve. The first stablecoin to become widely popular was Tether, however, there was a lot of controversy surrounding it. Most of the criticism came from the fact that Tether Limited was unable to prove they actually have the funds to cover all the Tether issued.
Additionally, on 30 April 2019, Tether Limited’s lawyer actually admitted that each coin is only backed by $0.74 in cash.
Currently, there are over a dozen stablecoins that are backed by fiat, commodities, and even cryptocurrencies. TrueUSD is similar to Tether but it is considered to be one of the most reliable stablecoins currently as the company behind it has been extremely transparent and conducted an independent audit back in March 2019.
A more complex stablecoin is Dai, which is backed by Ethereum and pegged to the dollar. The system behind Dai basically locks Ethereum in a public contract. If the value of Dai distances too far from $1, the system will make use of the contract to stabilize it back. There is, however, a small problem: Dai is not entirely decentralized as the technology behind it is being monitored by the Maker Foundation.
DigixDAO is another stablecoin and it’s backed by bars of actual gold. It is an ERC-20 token created back in 2014. The digital asset is entirely decentralized and autonomous and can in fact be extended to be backed by other precious metals and even physical assets. According to the company, the gold is stored in custodial vaults at the Singapore Safe House, and 1 DGX will always equal 1 gram of gold.
Cryptocurrencies Backed by Assets
Not all cryptocurrencies backed by assets are stablecoins. For instance, the first oil-backed cryptocurrency was introduced by Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro back in 2017. El Petro, although highly criticized, is supposedly the first cryptocurrency to be backed by oil thanks to the country’s huge oil and mineral reserves.
Petro is, however, not pegged to anything, and its value can increase or decrease at any given time.
Tokenization of Assets
Something that has become quite popular over the last few years is the tokenization of traditional stocks and assets. There are countless blockchain startups tokenizing almost anything to represent ownership.
The tokenization of assets brings numerous benefits like greater liquidity, more transparency, cheaper and faster transactions, and more accessibility. Tokenization itself is quite difficult to regulate, and all tokenization assets have to be compliant with the law, something that issuers struggle to achieve.
Conclusion
While traditional cryptocurrencies are not necessarily backed by anything physical, they still hold a lot of value solely based on supply and demand. This is the case with numerous other assets and even fiat money.
Cryptocurrencies have come a long way and there is a wide variety of them. Stablecoins are the most popular when it comes to asset-backed cryptocurrencies. They serve as an alternative to fiat money and bring a lot of liquidity to the market. There are definitely concerns as people question their stability, however, they have become an important factor in the market.
Additionally, other projects aside from stablecoins have implemented asset-backed cryptocurrencies. There are numerous cryptocurrencies out there backed by precious metals, physical assets, stocks, and even other cryptocurrencies. We are definitely going to see even more in the near future as they bring a lot more security to investors and the crypto space in general.

SwapSpace team is always ready for discussion. You can drop an email with your suggestions and questions to [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]) Join our social networks: Twitter, Medium, Facebook, Telegram The best rates on https://swapspace.co/
submitted by SwapSpace_co to CryptoCurrencyTrading [link] [comments]

What are Bitcoin and Other Cryptocurrencies Backed By?

Bitcoin was created back in 2009 and became the first cryptocurrency ever designed. Cryptocurrencies have become increasingly popular in the last few years as they offer an efficient and decentralized way of transferring money.
Cryptocurrencies have always been an alternative to banks and fiat money. But why do they have any value at all and who dictates what they are worth? The value of Bitcoin is really calculated through supply and demand. The digital asset itself is backed by nothing more than perhaps the blockchain ledger.
Every single cryptocurrency uses a blockchain ledger, a system that records transactions between two or more parties in a verifiable and permanent way. This certainly adds value to Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies. However, it is not what determines their price.
Why Things Have Value
Why does anything have any value at all? It has mostly because of supply and demand. Traditional currencies, for instance, are only backed by the government that issued them. Digital money, like Bitcoin, is not backed or linked to any physical reserves like gold and can certainly lose value due to different factors.
Cryptocurrencies have value because they require ‘work’ to exist. Cryptocurrencies are maintained thanks to the mining process, a process in which transactions are verified by different people. This process requires a certain amount of work, electricity, and money.
Key Factors That Affect The Value of Cryptocurrencies
Since most cryptocurrencies are not physically backed by anything, their value is determined through supply and demand based on a few important factors. One of the biggest advantages of cryptocurrencies is scarcity. The supply of most cryptocurrencies is fixed, and, unlike traditional currencies, no one can issue more than the maximum limit. This means that cryptocurrencies are deflationary by nature.
Another key factor that benefits cryptocurrencies is divisibility. Any cryptocurrency can be divided into smaller units. A simple change in Bitcoin’s code could allow the digital asset to be divided into infinitely smaller units at any time.
Additionally, transferring cryptocurrencies can be extremely fast and cheap compared to traditional methods. Fees are somewhat fixed no matter the amount you send, which means that theoretically you could send 1 million Bitcoins to someone and pay only a few dollars in fees (or even less).
In a way, one could say that Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies are backed by the public’s faith in them as they have realized that the current monetary system is not as robust as one might think.
Why Are Cryptocurrencies so Volatile Then?
In comparison to traditional currencies and even stocks, cryptocurrencies are far more volatile, meaning that the current price of any given crypto can change drastically in hours. It’s quite common to see Bitcoin’s price go up or down 5-10% within a few days. In fact, even in periods of low volatility, most cryptocurrencies still experience price moves of up to 1-2%, which is considered extremely high in traditional markets.
The explanation, however, is quite simple. Cryptocurrencies, in general, lack the liquidity that the rest of the markets enjoy. According to statistics from Statista, the average daily turnover in the global foreign exchange market was around $6.5 trillion daily. The cryptocurrency market, on average, sees around $80 billion in daily trading volume, and according to various sources, a lot of the volume is actually fake.
The problem with illiquidity is that someone who wants to sell or buy a huge amount of Bitcoin or any cryptocurrency will simply ‘eat’ all the orders in the order book of the exchange, catapulting the price up or crashing it. That is the only reason why cryptocurrencies, in general, are extremely volatile.
Some Cryptocurrencies Are Actually Backed by Things
There are, however, some cryptocurrencies that are backed by gold, assets, and even fiat money. Tether (USDT) became the most popular cryptocurrency backed by fiat, later known as a ‘stablecoin’.
Stablecoins
A stablecoin is designed to always be worth $1.00 by maintaining 1 dollar in some sort of reserve. The first stablecoin to become widely popular was Tether, however, there was a lot of controversy surrounding it. Most of the criticism came from the fact that Tether Limited was unable to prove they actually have the funds to cover all the Tether issued.
Additionally, on 30 April 2019, Tether Limited’s lawyer actually admitted that each coin is only backed by $0.74 in cash.
Currently, there are over a dozen stablecoins that are backed by fiat, commodities, and even cryptocurrencies. TrueUSD is similar to Tether but it is considered to be one of the most reliable stablecoins currently as the company behind it has been extremely transparent and conducted an independent audit back in March 2019.
A more complex stablecoin is Dai, which is backed by Ethereum and pegged to the dollar. The system behind Dai basically locks Ethereum in a public contract. If the value of Dai distances too far from $1, the system will make use of the contract to stabilize it back. There is, however, a small problem: Dai is not entirely decentralized as the technology behind it is being monitored by the Maker Foundation.
DigixDAO is another stablecoin and it’s backed by bars of actual gold. It is an ERC-20 token created back in 2014. The digital asset is entirely decentralized and autonomous and can in fact be extended to be backed by other precious metals and even physical assets. According to the company, the gold is stored in custodial vaults at the Singapore Safe House, and 1 DGX will always equal 1 gram of gold.
Cryptocurrencies Backed by Assets
Not all cryptocurrencies backed by assets are stablecoins. For instance, the first oil-backed cryptocurrency was introduced by Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro back in 2017. El Petro, although highly criticized, is supposedly the first cryptocurrency to be backed by oil thanks to the country’s huge oil and mineral reserves.
Petro is, however, not pegged to anything, and its value can increase or decrease at any given time.
Tokenization of Assets
Something that has become quite popular over the last few years is the tokenization of traditional stocks and assets. There are countless blockchain startups tokenizing almost anything to represent ownership.
The tokenization of assets brings numerous benefits like greater liquidity, more transparency, cheaper and faster transactions, and more accessibility. Tokenization itself is quite difficult to regulate, and all tokenization assets have to be compliant with the law, something that issuers struggle to achieve.
Conclusion
While traditional cryptocurrencies are not necessarily backed by anything physical, they still hold a lot of value solely based on supply and demand. This is the case with numerous other assets and even fiat money.
Cryptocurrencies have come a long way and there is a wide variety of them. Stablecoins are the most popular when it comes to asset-backed cryptocurrencies. They serve as an alternative to fiat money and bring a lot of liquidity to the market. There are definitely concerns as people question their stability, however, they have become an important factor in the market.
Additionally, other projects aside from stablecoins have implemented asset-backed cryptocurrencies. There are numerous cryptocurrencies out there backed by precious metals, physical assets, stocks, and even other cryptocurrencies. We are definitely going to see even more in the near future as they bring a lot more security to investors and the crypto space in general.

SwapSpace team is always ready for discussion. You can drop an email with your suggestions and questions to [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]) Join our social networks: Twitter, Medium, Facebook, Telegram The best rates on https://swapspace.co/
submitted by SwapSpace_co to CoinTelegraph [link] [comments]

What are Bitcoin and Other Cryptocurrencies Backed By?

Bitcoin was created back in 2009 and became the first cryptocurrency ever designed. Cryptocurrencies have become increasingly popular in the last few years as they offer an efficient and decentralized way of transferring money.
Cryptocurrencies have always been an alternative to banks and fiat money. But why do they have any value at all and who dictates what they are worth? The value of Bitcoin is really calculated through supply and demand. The digital asset itself is backed by nothing more than perhaps the blockchain ledger.
Every single cryptocurrency uses a blockchain ledger, a system that records transactions between two or more parties in a verifiable and permanent way. This certainly adds value to Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies. However, it is not what determines their price.
Why Things Have Value
Why does anything have any value at all? It has mostly because of supply and demand. Traditional currencies, for instance, are only backed by the government that issued them. Digital money, like Bitcoin, is not backed or linked to any physical reserves like gold and can certainly lose value due to different factors.
Cryptocurrencies have value because they require ‘work’ to exist. Cryptocurrencies are maintained thanks to the mining process, a process in which transactions are verified by different people. This process requires a certain amount of work, electricity, and money.
Key Factors That Affect The Value of Cryptocurrencies
Since most cryptocurrencies are not physically backed by anything, their value is determined through supply and demand based on a few important factors. One of the biggest advantages of cryptocurrencies is scarcity. The supply of most cryptocurrencies is fixed, and, unlike traditional currencies, no one can issue more than the maximum limit. This means that cryptocurrencies are deflationary by nature.
Another key factor that benefits cryptocurrencies is divisibility. Any cryptocurrency can be divided into smaller units. A simple change in Bitcoin’s code could allow the digital asset to be divided into infinitely smaller units at any time.
Additionally, transferring cryptocurrencies can be extremely fast and cheap compared to traditional methods. Fees are somewhat fixed no matter the amount you send, which means that theoretically you could send 1 million Bitcoins to someone and pay only a few dollars in fees (or even less).
In a way, one could say that Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies are backed by the public’s faith in them as they have realized that the current monetary system is not as robust as one might think.
Why Are Cryptocurrencies so Volatile Then?
In comparison to traditional currencies and even stocks, cryptocurrencies are far more volatile, meaning that the current price of any given crypto can change drastically in hours. It’s quite common to see Bitcoin’s price go up or down 5-10% within a few days. In fact, even in periods of low volatility, most cryptocurrencies still experience price moves of up to 1-2%, which is considered extremely high in traditional markets.
The explanation, however, is quite simple. Cryptocurrencies, in general, lack the liquidity that the rest of the markets enjoy. According to statistics from Statista, the average daily turnover in the global foreign exchange market was around $6.5 trillion daily. The cryptocurrency market, on average, sees around $80 billion in daily trading volume, and according to various sources, a lot of the volume is actually fake.
The problem with illiquidity is that someone who wants to sell or buy a huge amount of Bitcoin or any cryptocurrency will simply ‘eat’ all the orders in the order book of the exchange, catapulting the price up or crashing it. That is the only reason why cryptocurrencies, in general, are extremely volatile.
Some Cryptocurrencies Are Actually Backed by Things
There are, however, some cryptocurrencies that are backed by gold, assets, and even fiat money. Tether (USDT) became the most popular cryptocurrency backed by fiat, later known as a ‘stablecoin’.
Stablecoins
A stablecoin is designed to always be worth $1.00 by maintaining 1 dollar in some sort of reserve. The first stablecoin to become widely popular was Tether, however, there was a lot of controversy surrounding it. Most of the criticism came from the fact that Tether Limited was unable to prove they actually have the funds to cover all the Tether issued.
Additionally, on 30 April 2019, Tether Limited’s lawyer actually admitted that each coin is only backed by $0.74 in cash.
Currently, there are over a dozen stablecoins that are backed by fiat, commodities, and even cryptocurrencies. TrueUSD is similar to Tether but it is considered to be one of the most reliable stablecoins currently as the company behind it has been extremely transparent and conducted an independent audit back in March 2019.
A more complex stablecoin is Dai, which is backed by Ethereum and pegged to the dollar. The system behind Dai basically locks Ethereum in a public contract. If the value of Dai distances too far from $1, the system will make use of the contract to stabilize it back. There is, however, a small problem: Dai is not entirely decentralized as the technology behind it is being monitored by the Maker Foundation.
DigixDAO is another stablecoin and it’s backed by bars of actual gold. It is an ERC-20 token created back in 2014. The digital asset is entirely decentralized and autonomous and can in fact be extended to be backed by other precious metals and even physical assets. According to the company, the gold is stored in custodial vaults at the Singapore Safe House, and 1 DGX will always equal 1 gram of gold.
Cryptocurrencies Backed by Assets
Not all cryptocurrencies backed by assets are stablecoins. For instance, the first oil-backed cryptocurrency was introduced by Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro back in 2017. El Petro, although highly criticized, is supposedly the first cryptocurrency to be backed by oil thanks to the country’s huge oil and mineral reserves.
Petro is, however, not pegged to anything, and its value can increase or decrease at any given time.
Tokenization of Assets
Something that has become quite popular over the last few years is the tokenization of traditional stocks and assets. There are countless blockchain startups tokenizing almost anything to represent ownership.
The tokenization of assets brings numerous benefits like greater liquidity, more transparency, cheaper and faster transactions, and more accessibility. Tokenization itself is quite difficult to regulate, and all tokenization assets have to be compliant with the law, something that issuers struggle to achieve.
Conclusion
While traditional cryptocurrencies are not necessarily backed by anything physical, they still hold a lot of value solely based on supply and demand. This is the case with numerous other assets and even fiat money.
Cryptocurrencies have come a long way and there is a wide variety of them. Stablecoins are the most popular when it comes to asset-backed cryptocurrencies. They serve as an alternative to fiat money and bring a lot of liquidity to the market. There are definitely concerns as people question their stability, however, they have become an important factor in the market.
Additionally, other projects aside from stablecoins have implemented asset-backed cryptocurrencies. There are numerous cryptocurrencies out there backed by precious metals, physical assets, stocks, and even other cryptocurrencies. We are definitely going to see even more in the near future as they bring a lot more security to investors and the crypto space in general.

SwapSpace team is always ready for discussion. You can drop an email with your suggestions and questions to [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]) Join our social networks: Twitter, Medium, Facebook, Telegram The best rates on https://swapspace.co/
submitted by SwapSpace_co to CryptoMarkets [link] [comments]

What are Bitcoin and Other Cryptocurrencies Backed By?

Bitcoin was created back in 2009 and became the first cryptocurrency ever designed. Cryptocurrencies have become increasingly popular in the last few years as they offer an efficient and decentralized way of transferring money.
Cryptocurrencies have always been an alternative to banks and fiat money. But why do they have any value at all and who dictates what they are worth? The value of Bitcoin is really calculated through supply and demand. The digital asset itself is backed by nothing more than perhaps the blockchain ledger.
Every single cryptocurrency uses a blockchain ledger, a system that records transactions between two or more parties in a verifiable and permanent way. This certainly adds value to Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies. However, it is not what determines their price.

Why Things Have Value

Why does anything have any value at all? It has mostly because of supply and demand. Traditional currencies, for instance, are only backed by the government that issued them. Digital money, like Bitcoin, is not backed or linked to any physical reserves like gold and can certainly lose value due to different factors.
Cryptocurrencies have value because they require ‘work’ to exist. Cryptocurrencies are maintained thanks to the mining process, a process in which transactions are verified by different people. This process requires a certain amount of work, electricity, and money.

Key Factors That Affect The Value of Cryptocurrencies

Since most cryptocurrencies are not physically backed by anything, their value is determined through supply and demand based on a few important factors. One of the biggest advantages of cryptocurrencies is scarcity. The supply of most cryptocurrencies is fixed, and, unlike traditional currencies, no one can issue more than the maximum limit. This means that cryptocurrencies are deflationary by nature.
Another key factor that benefits cryptocurrencies is divisibility. Any cryptocurrency can be divided into smaller units. A simple change in Bitcoin’s code could allow the digital asset to be divided into infinitely smaller units at any time.
Additionally, transferring cryptocurrencies can be extremely fast and cheap compared to traditional methods. Fees are somewhat fixed no matter the amount you send, which means that theoretically you could send 1 million Bitcoins to someone and pay only a few dollars in fees (or even less).
In a way, one could say that Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies are backed by the public’s faith in them as they have realized that the current monetary system is not as robust as one might think.

Why Are Cryptocurrencies so Volatile Then?

In comparison to traditional currencies and even stocks, cryptocurrencies are far more volatile, meaning that the current price of any given crypto can change drastically in hours. It’s quite common to see Bitcoin’s price go up or down 5-10% within a few days. In fact, even in periods of low volatility, most cryptocurrencies still experience price moves of up to 1-2%, which is considered extremely high in traditional markets.
The explanation, however, is quite simple. Cryptocurrencies, in general, lack the liquidity that the rest of the markets enjoy. According to statistics from Statista, the average daily turnover in the global foreign exchange market was around $6.5 trillion daily. The cryptocurrency market, on average, sees around $80 billion in daily trading volume, and according to various sources, a lot of the volume is actually fake.
The problem with illiquidity is that someone who wants to sell or buy a huge amount of Bitcoin or any cryptocurrency will simply ‘eat’ all the orders in the order book of the exchange, catapulting the price up or crashing it. That is the only reason why cryptocurrencies, in general, are extremely volatile.

Some Cryptocurrencies Are Actually Backed by Things

There are, however, some cryptocurrencies that are backed by gold, assets, and even fiat money. Tether (USDT) became the most popular cryptocurrency backed by fiat, later known as a ‘stablecoin’.

Stablecoins

A stablecoin is designed to always be worth $1.00 by maintaining 1 dollar in some sort of reserve. The first stablecoin to become widely popular was Tether, however, there was a lot of controversy surrounding it. Most of the criticism came from the fact that Tether Limited was unable to prove they actually have the funds to cover all the Tether issued.
Additionally, on 30 April 2019, Tether Limited’s lawyer actually admitted that each coin is only backed by $0.74 in cash.
Currently, there are over a dozen stablecoins that are backed by fiat, commodities, and even cryptocurrencies. TrueUSD is similar to Tether but it is considered to be one of the most reliable stablecoins currently as the company behind it has been extremely transparent and conducted an independent audit back in March 2019.
A more complex stablecoin is Dai, which is backed by Ethereum and pegged to the dollar. The system behind Dai basically locks Ethereum in a public contract. If the value of Dai distances too far from $1, the system will make use of the contract to stabilize it back. There is, however, a small problem: Dai is not entirely decentralized as the technology behind it is being monitored by the Maker Foundation.
DigixDAO is another stablecoin and it’s backed by bars of actual gold. It is an ERC-20 token created back in 2014. The digital asset is entirely decentralized and autonomous and can in fact be extended to be backed by other precious metals and even physical assets. According to the company, the gold is stored in custodial vaults at the Singapore Safe House, and 1 DGX will always equal 1 gram of gold.

Cryptocurrencies Backed by Assets

Not all cryptocurrencies backed by assets are stablecoins. For instance, the first oil-backed cryptocurrency was introduced by Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro back in 2017. El Petro, although highly criticized, is supposedly the first cryptocurrency to be backed by oil thanks to the country’s huge oil and mineral reserves.
Petro is, however, not pegged to anything, and its value can increase or decrease at any given time.

Tokenization of Assets

Something that has become quite popular over the last few years is the tokenization of traditional stocks and assets. There are countless blockchain startups tokenizing almost anything to represent ownership.
The tokenization of assets brings numerous benefits like greater liquidity, more transparency, cheaper and faster transactions, and more accessibility. Tokenization itself is quite difficult to regulate, and all tokenization assets have to be compliant with the law, something that issuers struggle to achieve.

Conclusion

While traditional cryptocurrencies are not necessarily backed by anything physical, they still hold a lot of value solely based on supply and demand. This is the case with numerous other assets and even fiat money.
Cryptocurrencies have come a long way and there is a wide variety of them. Stablecoins are the most popular when it comes to asset-backed cryptocurrencies. They serve as an alternative to fiat money and bring a lot of liquidity to the market. There are definitely concerns as people question their stability, however, they have become an important factor in the market.
Additionally, other projects aside from stablecoins have implemented asset-backed cryptocurrencies. There are numerous cryptocurrencies out there backed by precious metals, physical assets, stocks, and even other cryptocurrencies. We are definitely going to see even more in the near future as they bring a lot more security to investors and the crypto space in general.

SwapSpace team is always ready for discussion. You can drop an email with your suggestions and questions to [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]) Join our social networks: Twitter, Medium, Facebook The best rates on https://swapspace.co/
submitted by SwapSpace_co to SwapSpace [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Endgame Discussion

So I had a sort of epiphany the other day, you might dismiss this offhandedly but hear me out:
Bitcoin will eventually be worthless, but not soon (probably). This is because it will be eclipsed by fiat cryptoUSD at some point.
I strongly suspect that the US government or other governments are working on their own crypto currencies, that will replace paper money. There's nothing magical about bitcoin, we are a public beta-test, that once proven, will be rendered worthless by a national cryptocurrency that won't be mined, but will be issued by the central bank. Big banks are already working on using block chains for smart contracts. Note: they aren't using existing currencies with smart contracts, they are making their own. The USA similarly has no reason whatsoever to adopt bitcoin as a currency. The government stooges benefit MUCH more by making their own and replacing the paper dollar with it. Much like how they saw the benefit of fiat money over gold. No merchant still uses both gold coins and dollars for transactions, whatever the bank uses, they use.
Right now the main arguments for bitcoin's value are, in no particular order: I had more thoughts under each of these arguments but I can't be arsed to type them all out.
On that note, I'm currently bullish on bitcoin, buy it now but don't hodl too long...
submitted by Redcrux to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Blockchain to fix horribly broken e-mail system like it is today?

E-mail as it is, is horribly broken. Horrendously broken.
It wasn't that many years ago that you could be assured your e-mail reaches whoever you were mailing to. Today it is a mere suggestion, that perhaps this should be delivered to this person, at least for any automated e-mail. This seems to be creeping to manual, organic email as well. Hell, we are seeing even internal e-mails being flagged by spamassassin as spam, organic, human written conversations! In that instance, the spamassassin is also maintained by one of the largest hosting providers in the world...
Hotmail/MS services has been for years (atleast about 4 years now!) been silently dropping email, not all, but some. There's a bit of relief lately, as they have started to favor a bit more marking as spam, rather than silently dropping.
I know, most email users don't see this problem, but those who use email a lot to do their work, and those who need to send automated emails (say, welcome e-mails for a service) this is a big problem. (Disclaimer, for us, our niche of hosting probably causes flagging as well. Our site is blocked by many corporate firewalls for example)
Blockchain to the rescue?
This is an idea i've been toying around with a few years. What if any single e-mail would cost a faction of a cent, and who receives the e-mail, gets paid for it? Now that would solve a lot of problems. I realize there has been some half assed attempts on blockchain based e-mail, but they are about replacing email (never going to happen). Using blockchain to enhance the current experience, with least minimal friction should be the goal, not re-inventing the wheel.
Imagine a say 0.01 cent (0.0001 USD) cost per e-mail. This price would not be cost prohibitive even for free e-mail service providers (Ad revenue etc. should exceed this value), never mind any legit e-mail users. Especially considering you get paid for receiving. So all legit e-mail services would work rather well regardless of the cost. (never mind free email service could profit from this)
Spam however? To send 1 million emails you would need to pay 100$. How many spammers would continue doing so? At least it makes things much harder, not so easy to use a botnet to send your email when you need to include your private key(s) to the botnet, or make some kind of private key management system, makes more complicated.
Small business newsletters? Say you need to send 100k e-mails to legit customers, 10$ is nothing. To human time crafting that newsletter is order (possibly orders) of magnitude greater than that.
Price would also fluctuate as per the market. The most difficult thing would probably be setting the self balancing mechanisms to keep per mail cost sensible. As such, the biggest hurdle in this might not be technical at all.
Technically, how could this work?
Sender sends a TX for e-mail they are sending for recipient. This TX contains message with mail ID, and a segment which can be used with the email contents to unlock the private key for the payment. This way it is verified that recipient mail servers receives and reads the email. Once the recipient server has calculated the private key, they can either TX the received sum to their wallet, or this needs to be formatted so that once the sender has sent it, they cannot recover the private key and double spend (technical hurdle A. For someone who knows their stuff unlikely to be an major hurdle)
Step by step repeat: * Sender checks if recipient has "MailCoin" capability * Sender sends TX to recipient * Sender sends the email to recipient * Recipient notices on mail header (say x-mailcoin-tx: TXID_HERE) that this is a "mailcoin" mail * Recipient checks TX if it has been received * Recipient puts the mail on delivery queue, antispam is instructed of heavy negative score (MTA admin configurable) * Recipient claims the value of the TX (this is the hurdle A). Recipient can only claim the TX value in case they have received the full e-mail. (Question, can this step be pushed even further down the delivery chain, but still remain MTA only level without mail client support?). Most likely solution is that the header contains the encrypted private key, and chain TX contains the key to decrypt that private key to claim the coins, or vice-versa?
Once recipient has the email & payment, they simply mark on their Antispam a automatic lower score and deliver it normally.
E-mail server side we have several components:
Most typical scenario would be the Recipient server works as outgoing as well, with single wallet. So depending on your mail volume, do you send or receive more on that wallet you might never need to worry about the coins (except for value going skyhigh and having like 10k $ worth of "MailCoins").
So perhaps additional components on per use case are needed, or more likely rudimentary scripting capability (ie. "MailCoin" daemon api) to keep the balances in check.
Technical hurdle B: This needs to be super super simple to setup. Or sufficient financial incentive. One would need to develop standard components & configs for exim, postfix, and other MTAs. Infact, make it autogenerate wallet ID etc. and easy to replace or import private keys etc. to put in coins for sending if you need to.
Privacy: On the blockchain you would not see the e-mail contents, only that e-mail likely took place (TX with mail UUID) to recipient. If sender can be deciphered it depends on them if it can be traced who they were. Automatic mixers? :) Recipient can also keep cycling the receive addresses to keep things private if they want to.
The biggest problem i see here, is that if an attacker can deduce the sender and/or recipient, it might to lead to some issues out of the scope of technical solutions. If attacker could read the emails, they would already have accomplished MitM and could just grab all e-mails.
Default implementation should be so, that from recipient address outsider cannot deduce the recipient server nor hostname.
Also, if attacker gains access to your mail with full headers, they could see the TXs in blockchain. MTA might need to scrub mailcoin related headers (yuck, scrubbing headers ....) for paranoid users, but most likely solution is that recipient retransmits those mailcoins as soon as they got the private key for the balance.
Blockchain: Blocks needs to be done every 10seconds or so, it needs to be fast. Preferrably even every 5 seconds, as not to cause any undue delay. Then again, if your application is reliant on receiving email within seconds, one should consider another means for communicating. Imho, email should be considered a little bit like snail mail, but on internet pace: Couple minutes delay is just OK.
Block size given the e-mail volume needs to be fairly large as well, considering the time between blocks. This is technical hurdle C: Hosting the full blockchain. I can easily foresee that this would grow to be terabytes in size. However, any large email operator would have vested interest in ensuring smooth operation of the blockchain, and for them, running a full node would have neglible cost.
(Technical hurdle C) Single email sent using the system could easily have TX contents of 100 bytes + TX headers + block headers etc. Say 100 bytes, and 100 million emails per day: 9.31GiB per day, 3 399GiB per year, 5 years later: 16.60 TiB just for the mail TXs.
Some estimate there is 200+ billion emails per day, but we all know large portion of this is spam. But even at 50 billion emails a day, 100 bytes per mail TX would add to 4.55TiB per day! So optimizing the blockchain size is obviously going to be important. The volume will be obviously much smaller as semi-spam (those daily half opt-in spamvertising from companies you know) will be lower as well. So probs 100+ billion emails per day at 100% adoption.
Blockchain should then be compressed, the whole block. Algorithm probably should favor speed over compression rate, and should be task specifically optimized (needs a simple reference release, where you can just stream the block contents into it and get output as compressed or uncompressed). The more compression there is, the more full nodes will be hosted by smaller operators :)
For large e-mail server clusters there should be central store for the blockchain, but this can be accessed on the system administratoconfig level already. The MTA components will just remotely talk to single full node daemon (so not really different from many implementations in existence right now), instead of each one running locally a full node.
At today's cheapest hosting rates 16.60TiB is roughly around 85-100€ a month. Purchase cost per 8TB drive is around 230€ mark right now, externals are cheaper. Not an issue for any even semi serious mail provider. Not even issue for datahoarder individuals.
However at 100 billion mails per day: 9.09TiB per day added, which is prohibitively large! We should be targeting something like 20bytes per mail final storage spent, or even less.
If it looks like it is going to grow really large, full node needs to have configurable multiple storages, so they can store parts of the blockchain on multiple different devices (ie. individual might choose to have it on 4 different external drives).
Filesystem side optimizations are needed as well, but these are fairly simple, just split into multiple subdirectories by the 10 thousand blocks or so, ie. 1 for blocks 1-10k, 2 for blocks 10 001 to 20k etc. Filesystems get exponentially slower the more files there is per directory. 10k might start to show slowing down, but is not significant yet.
Nodes could also implement secondary compression (compress multiple blocks together), if the blockchain starts to become stupid large. If it starts to become impossible to maintain, we could possibly implement a scrubbing methodology, where very old blocks get the TX contents wiped as they are not necessary anymore. Should not be an issue
Blocks with 10second target generated per annum: 3 153 600 Mails per 10second: 115 740 e-mails per 10second block. Final compressed size (say 20 bytes per mail): 2.20MiB + headers etc. per block Let's start small and allow linear growth to this, say 0.1% per day (36.5% annual) and start from 20k / 512KiB. After 3 years: 41.9k / 1072.64KiB per block, After 10 years: 93k / 2380.8KiB. (2027 we should have HDDs in the size of 30TB and daily max size for chain growth is 19.61TiB)
On the positive side every problem is an opportunity in disguise. If the blockchain is large, once again botnets will have a hard hard time to spamming, they can't host the full blockchain on infected machines. They will need to develop centralized mechanisms on this regard as well. One method i can see is by having TOR client built in, and via .onion domain to anonymize, but this is two way street, security researchers could exploit this (see above about the private keys) as well. Even without botnets, spammers will need to dedicate significant resources to host the full blockchain.
On the flip side, if spammer has also mining operation on the same local area network, they have both the income for mailcoins + full blockchain, and could leverage economies of scale, but this too would increase cost. And after all: This is all about increasing cost for spamming, while having the price in vicinity where real e-mail users, real businesses it is not a significant impact, or may even be an income source
Client side
Zero, Nada changes. No changes to outlook, thunderbird etc. Everything works under the hood at the MTA level. Very easy adoption for the end user. Everything is in the backend, server side.
Economics for users
Cost of operation has above been shown to increase wildly for spammers. But how about normal use cases?
Joe Average: They receive e-mail a lot more than they send, all kinds of order confirmations, invoices, newsletters and other automated e-mail. They will actually earn (however tiny amounts) from using this system. So for the masses, this is a good thing, they will see the earning potentials! which brings us to ....
New business opportunities! I could foresee a business setting up spam traps, the more e-mail you receive the more you earn! So it pays to get your receiver into spam lists. You don't ever need to read these, just confirm receive of them. All of sudden we could see even greater numbers of invalid e-mail addresses in spam lists, making spamming ever more expensive!
Free email services might proof to be extremely profitable, to the point of potential revenue sharing with Joe Averages (and above spamtraps). Because free email is mostly joe averages, they will have greater influx than outgoing. On the caveat, free email needs to have limits, but due to the low cost and potential of earnings, they could implement "mail credits" system, base is like 20 emails a day, but each received email could increase this credit limit. As such, it makes actually sense for free email services to implement this at the very least on the receiving side.
Business mass emailings. A business which has 100k valid e-mails on their database will not have a problem with paying few dozen bucks to have their mass mailing delivered. BUT they will make extra sure the content is good and targeted, something the recipient wants to receive. These will be the biggest spenders on email, apart from spammers.
ISPs, hell they get paid to provide e-mail. And they are on the same spot as free email service providers, they stand to earn more than spend!
Blockchain economics
This is where things might get interesting, there is so much potential.
However, there are several things definitively should not be done:
1 & 2 are easy, just do not mine outside of testnet prior to launch. (If devs get paid by companies, there is conflict of interest as well, but let's not get into that right now)
3: Miners and/or full node maintainers decide what goes on. Probably miners like bitcoin is supposed to.
4: Infinite & preferential supply: No after the launch "contracts" etc. to give coins to preferential parties, it should remain as on the launch unless majority consensus says there will be a change. Proof of stake is gray area imho, but then again also proof of work is the rich gets richer.
Mining: Storage requirement is a blessing in disguise, the massive storages required for this to function means that there will be no central hardware developer who sells all the shovels, without significant other markets. Ie. WD, Seagate, Toshiba the main players.
This means algo needs to be based on the full blockchain being hosted. The hashing needs to be so that GPUs are the king most likely, since almost anything good for CPUs is also doable in GPUs. Eventually someone will likely come with ASIC alternative, but due to masses of data it WILL require high bandwidth, high memory. Nothing like bitcoin currently, where low bandwidth, no memory requirement for the ASIC. There needs to be some expensive commodity components in there (RAM, Storage), and as such GPUs are the most likely candidate, and the bottleneck will not likely be computation, but I/O bandwidth.
Quickly thinking, previous block could include number of blocks to be included on the next for verification, in a highly compressible format. Let's say difficulty is number of blocks to be hashed, or from difficulty you can calculate number of blocks to be included. Previous blocks miner just chooses on random blocks to be included on the next one. Listing 10 series of blocks to be included, which can include series instructions. It could request block #5729375+100, or #357492+500 stepping 5 (every 5th block). Hell the random generator could use last block as seed for the next one to make it deterministic YET random as the emails and TXs change. (WTF, Did i just solve how the algo needs to work?!?) Only blocks which would differentiate is the first few, and obviously Genesis, for which an "empty" block would be what is to be hashed.
Hashing algo could be SHA256 because of the high requirement of streaming data, and most ASIC miners lacking in bandwidth (infact, it could be made compatible with bitcoin, but only those ASICS with higher I/O bandwidth than storage/ram I/O bandwidth is could actually boost the perf)
Different hashable list operations could be (on the block list what to be hashed on the next one): * Single block * Block # + number of blocks * Block # + (number of blocks with stepping) * Block # + number of blocks chosen by random using each hashed block as the seed for choosing next one (makes prefetch, preread, caching not work efficiently) * Number of previous blocks mined (ie. 50 last blocks) * Above but with stepping operator * Above but with choose random next X blocks, with variations based on the last hashed, sum of the hashed * All random pickers would have operation modes for the seed to be used: From hashed sum, the whole block, block contents, block header
These modes would ensure the blocks are there and makes it a lot dependable on variable factors, RAM speed, I/O seek time, I/O bandwidth.
This way we have proof that the miner has access to those blocks in efficient manner and the full blockchain is stored there, even if it is not practically retrievable from him / her over the internet for others to obtain a copy. HOWEVER, due to the data volumes, i think it is given they have fast access, but a miner would probably prefer not to share their blockchain contents to have bandwidth free for their mining, as the deadlines are tight. It could be built into the full node spec that they do not accept new blocks from sources which are not ready to supply any given block, and perhaps even periodic test of this. However, this would be unenforceable if people start running custom coded nodes which disables this, as it is not part of the blockchain calculation. It is not miner's benefit to "waste" precious bandwidth to serve others the vast blockchain, meanwhile it is end users benefit those running full nodes without mining to get them fast. So an equilibrium might be reached, if miners start loosing out because other miners will not share their blocks, they will start offering them, even if prioritized.
At 2MiB blocks, 10 second deadline, a miner would preferentially want the new block within 500ms, which would be barely sufficient time for a round trip across the globe. 500ms for 2MiB is 4MiB/s transfer rate inbound, and when block found you want it out even faster, say 250ms you'll need 8MiB/s burst which very very few have at a home. At more usual 1MiB/s it would take 2secs to submit your new block. On the other hand, if you found the block, you'd have immediate access to begin calcing the next one.
Block verification needs to be fast, and as such the above difficulty setting alone is not sufficient, there needs to be nonce. Just picking the right block is not guarantee there will be match, so traditional !???? nonce needs to be set as well most likely. As such, a lot of maths needs to be done to ensure this algorithm does not have dead ends, yet ensures certain blocks needs to be read as full and stored fully by the miners, just plain hashes of the blocks is not sufficient.
Perhaps it should be block data + nonce, then all the blocks hashes (with nonce, or pre-chosen salt) and to be generated block combined hash with nonce needs to have certain number of zeroes. Needs testing and maths :)
So there are many ways to accomplish proof of storage, we'd need just to figure out the which is the best.
Sidenote, this same algo could potentially be used with different settings for immutable, forever storage of data. Since there is no continuing cost to store data, TX Fee for every message (data) byte should be very high in such a coin.
Supply. Needs to be predictable and easy to understand. It would be preferential the standard mailing out is always 1x MailCoin, albeit coin itself should be practically infinitively divisable, and as such supply needs to be in the trillions eventually. But these things get complicated really fast, so we need to set a schedule.
Current email use is very large, so we should have something in the same magnitude. 8640 blocks per day - so maybe 10 000 coins per block == 86 400 000 new coins per day == 31 536 000 000 new coins per year, halving every 2 years. First halving: 63 072 000 000, Second halving: 94 608 000 000, Third (6 years): 110 376 000 000, but only halving 4 or 5 times to keep some new supply for ever increasing adoption and lost coins.
Got all the way here? :D
Thanks for reading up. Let me know what you think, and let's start a discussion on the feasibility of such a system!
I cannot develop this myself, but i would definitively back an effort up in the ways i can if anyone attempts to do something like this :) And i know i got probably many of the details incorrect
The main point of the methods described above is ease of adoption. Without adoption any system is worthless, and with email, you just cannot replace it like that (see the attempts trying to replace IPv4 with IPv6 ...), but you can enhance it. adoption is very critical in communications systems. (No one would have a phone if no one else had a phone)
Addendum 1: Forgot to add about pricing and markets, read comment here
Addendun 2: Bad actors and voting
submitted by PulsedMedia to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

My MIT Bitcoin Expo Experience / A Few Questions

Great event... Great people all in one room... Many thanks to the MIT Bitcoin Club for putting this on! Super excited about threshold signatures!!!
However, there were a few questions I intended to ask, and I did not make it happen. If you all could indulge me, I would like some help reconciling a few things here.
I've done searches on the issues below, with little and inconclusive results... I would really like to get the forum's input regarding these concerns. Please bear with me if these are non-issues. And please forgive the length/formatting.
Thanks for reading. Please help me to understand this better... I would really like to be more fluid trying to articulate this junk...
Seriously.. All this decentralized hullabaloo, come to realize the damn miners are the third party all along? Is this just pedantic semantic gymnastics? There is no way Satoshi mis-characterized Bitcoin in the first fucking sentence of our white paper.. Right??
submitted by ipsissimus666 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
1. What is Helix?
Helix Cognitive Computing GmbH is a Berlin-based strategic tech company, dedicated to creating a cutting-edge digital ecosystem for interconnecting Everyone and Everything. Helix aims to challenge the status quo by eliminating the need for intermediaries and central authorities, at virtually no cost. For more information, you can visit our website at www.hlx.ai.
2. What problem is Helix solving?
Helix solves problems associated with centralized systems and management. Rather than blindly relying on third-party promises, Helix builds trust by adopting public consensus mechanisms. Thus, it fosters the creation of endless new relationships and businesses that are more ‚direct‘ in nature. Helix enables the use of end-to-end encryption to emit secured data streams, implying that you can fully control which parties are authorized to access your messages or data.
By eliminating intermediaries, Helix enables trustless transactions. It is no longer required to blindly trust any intermediary, whether it is a storage or financial service provider, such as banks. An example includes the creation of Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAOs) that are direct, peer-to-peer and organize their company through digital voting systems. This could be achieved for any organization using the HelixFramework involving no payment fees to Helix. The Helix Consensus Protocol is leveraged to achieve data integrity instead of that (for more information about the HelixTangle, please refer to the Whitepaper on our website: https://www.hlx.ai/whitepaper), i.e., transactions that have reached agreement are serialized to the ledger and are immutable.
3. What makes Helix different to others?
  • The Helix Consensus Protocol (HCP) enables efficient and secure transaction processing at virtually no cost, opposed to legacy blockchains.
  • We are building an application by the name of HelixComposer. Helix assigns great importance to usability and accessibility by providing an interface for people who do not have prior knowledge in cryptocurrencies or computer sciences. The HelixComposer and its graphical user interface provide the middle layer or rather the "interaction layer" between users and the network infrastructure. It enables interactive guidance and tools for designing own decentralized applications and defining smart contracts.
  • We have community service, the HelixFoundation. The HelixFoundation assures the sustainability of the HelixNetwork. The HelixNetwork consists of Nodes (Computers) executing HCP and overlay networks (such as Flash and MAM), that are leveraged to achieve greater scalability and privacy. Further, the HelixFoundation is dedicated to creating educational workshops in the realm of Distributed Ledger Technologies, as we feel a great need of educating interested people and promote young talents.
4. Is Helix an active player in the Blockchain space?
Helix is active in the Distributed Ledger Technologies DLT space with its own Peer-to-Peer (P2P) network protocol – not based on Blockchain principles. The Helix Distributed Ledger is modeled as a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG), a well-known data structure with excellent properties in terms of scalability.
5. What does decentralization mean?
Decentralization is a term used in network topology to describe the relations between different node types. Centralized systems typically consist of a client-server architecture or slave nodes listening to a coordinator.
https://i.redd.it/8pue5gmq1fg11.png
Decentralization promotes the elimination of unnecessary intermediaries, from the transfer of value between persons and things.
6. What is Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT)?
Distributed Ledger Technology encompasses an extensive database consisting of synchronized digital records. Examples of records maintained by DLTs include monetary transactions (e.g., Bitcoin Blockchain), titles and rights to intellectual property, creative content, music, votes, healthcare records, and other sensitive or confidential material.
7. What is a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG)?
A Directed Acyclic Graph is a particular type of graph consisting of nodes connected to each other by directed edges. The term ‘Directed’ refers to the idea that edges have directions (like a street map), while ‘Acyclic’ implies that it is not possible to walk from a node X and return to X without going back on a previously used edge (for example no U-turns!).
8. What is a P2P Network?
The architecture of most computer applications on the internet is two-tiered. In a two-tiered architecture, there is a clear division between clients and servers. For example, a typical banking application allows a client to prepare transactions on his/her local machine, and upload the transaction to the bank's centralized server or database. In contrast to the two-tiered architecture of centralized applications, P2P systems equally distribute all aspects of the application across participants, which enables workloads, resources, and values to be shared, and additionally, eliminates the need for peers to trust central authorities.
9. What is “cognition”?
The word cognition derives from the Latin term cognosco which means 'to conceptualize'. Cognition can be defined as the mental act of acquiring and understanding knowledge through senses, experience, and thought.
10. What does “cognitive computing” mean?
Cognitive computers imitate human intelligence by processing data with a set of rules and procedures that can be updated iteratively, based on the value of the incoming data on an asneeded basis. Cognitive computing systems can provide highly accurate descriptions of visual and linguistic data, just like humans. A developing cognitive computer system relies on machine learning strategies, and the scientific study of biological systems, including their cognitive abilities that sustain autonomous, self-driven learning.
11. How is Helix funded today and do you plan an ICO – when?
Currently, Helix is funded by global private and institutional investors. In order to optimize its strategy and operations to the interest of both public (i.e. community) and professional investors, Helix decides to defer its ICO until a better perception in the markets evolves. Helix also intends to evaluate other forms of global coin distribution models where the public audience would be involved in schemes similar to Bounty Programs or Air Drops rather than an ICO. For more detailed information about ICO and Coins, please refer to the Helix ICO & Coins Quick Facts on our website: https://hlx.ai/whitepaper.
12. What is a cryptocurrency after all?
A cryptocurrency is a digital means of payment created and transferred using cryptographic principles, to enable a decentralized and secure payment system.
13. What is HLX?
HLX is the cryptocurrency developed by Helix Cognitive Computing.
14. Why is HLX called "Cognitive Cryptocurrency"?
Every transaction initiated in the HelixTangle results from the process of cognition. Helix uses cognitive scientific methods for purposes of security and validation in the network. For example, in order to approve or validate a transaction, Helix introduces the first ever transaction ledger in the crypto world, which secures transactions using artificial intelligence techniques such as decentralized deep learning, a unique ability to understand, reason and learn about cyber-attacks and threats.
15. Who can use HLX?
HLX is for everyone and everything. You do not need to create a large valued transaction to use the HelixTangle. And since there is no fee, both people and machines can attach their micro-valued transactions to the HelixTangle. Thus, the HelixTangle can be used for machineto-machine settlement, person-to-machine, or machine-to-person payments.
16. Who needs HLX?
The HLX coin is the means of digital exchange in the HelixTangle.
17. How I can mine HLX and how expensive are the transaction fees?
You cannot "mine" the HelixTangle because the Helix protocol does not require intermediaries like miners. The upshot is that the HelixTangle does not waste valuable resources like energy or natural space. Regarding transaction fees, there are none!
18. How are HLX created?
The HLX amount was set in advance by a human council. The sum is set in advance in the code and implemented in the HelixTangle. The Total Coin Supply is calculated from (244 * 244).
19. What is the maximum number of HLX Coins that can be in circulation?
Our maximum amount will be 4,292,493,394,837,504 HLX or 4,292,493,394 mHLX. We also tend to say, in short, but imprecisely: "The total supply is approximately 4,3 petaHLX".
20. What is the difference between mHLX and HLX?
Because the number 4,292,493,394,837,504 HLX is rather inconvenient to use, we count in millions of HLX, calling that unit mHLX (“Mega Helix”).
So the integer of the total coin supply divided by a million results in the total mHLX supply of 4,292,493,394 mHLX.
21. Is the HLX supply infinite?
The HLX coin supply is finite, not infinite. In other words, there are a limited number of HLX coins. In contrast to the Keynesian economic models of most states, the HLX coin supply is not inflationary because no one can “print money” as they need it, and arbitrary coins are never generated.
22. On which exchange platforms for trading HLX will be available?
To be announced after the ICO.
23. Where can I store my HLX?
Once the HLX coins are prepared for transfer to third parties, you can store your HLX inside the HelixWallet software that will be provided in time for the coin transfers.
24. Is Helix' focus on the HLX coin or the Tangle?
First and foremost, Helix is not about the cryptocurrency but rather a protocol for introducing next-generation technology in decentralized distributed computing. It can be said that the cryptocurrency HLX is a necessity to our peer-to-peer network. To be able to tap the full potential of the HelixTangle you need currency. It is not possible to pay with fiat money on the Tangle, and this is not a plan.
25. Is the HelixNetwork better than a Blockchain P2P network?
Yes. Advantages of the HelixNetwork over traditional Blockchain P2P networks include:
  • Cost – Transactions in the Tangle are free of charge and occur at a far higher speed
  • Scalability - Transaction confirmation speed increases linearly with the numbers of tips
  • Decentralization – The Helix Tangle eliminates the need for mining or miners
  • Environmentally Friendly – e.g., No waste of electrical energy
  • Can be used by the emerging machine economy (=IoT and sensors).
26. Why is the Tangle faster than a Blockchain?
New transactions in the Tangle confirm two previous transactions. This makes the Tangle infinitely scalable. Blockchain, on the other hand, sees several transactions packed into one block and these blocks are charged every ten minutes.
27. What is unique about the Tangle?
The HLX coin can be used like any other cryptocurrency. The network protocol was specially designed to connect devices. Companies and people gather data every day with a myriad of devices such as weather sensors or sensors in machinery and healthcare. But almost every piece of information is not used or recycled. The HelixNetwork can tackle it in two ways: It can save data in a way, such that no one other than yourself has access to the data. Moreover, it allows a free transaction between the owner and the one who wants to acquire the data. While we already realize how relevant data is at present, in the future, data will play an even more significant role.
28. How is data stored in the Tangle?
Suppose you want to send a JPG file to someone. First, your picture will be split into several parts and stored in a special field of various Helix transactions.
To send data or communicate with someone on the HelixTangle, you store data in the shared, public version of the Tangle for a limited amount of time. When you, or someone else you authorize, retrieve the data, you are reading the data directly from the HelixTangle in its most current state. The transactions containing your data will not be removed until a snapshot, which is like sending data off into oblivion. After the data has been forgotten, all transaction objects valued at 0 are deleted from the shared, public HelixTangle. If someone would want to read your data from the HelixTangle, that would mean that they must take the precisely same walk through the graph you already did, and only then they would recover the original walk, or message, or data. To simplify this process and stay up to certain privacy requirements, we use a module called Masked Authenticated Messaging. It enables a private, public or restricted encrypted data stream, wherein the restricted scheme, for instance, a channel identifier key and a private key would be required to access the data stream.
29. Is the data stored in the Tangle or does the data only pass through the Tangle?
To be certain of the correctness of your data, in other words, to achieve data integrity, it is mandatory that data is stored in the Tangle. Due to Proof of Work requirements and confirmation times, this could lead to problems in a scenario like a messaging app, where remotely instant data transfer is required. In these cases, it is recommended to use an overlay network like Flash. Flash enables the creation of a multi-signature wallet (that holds a balance predefined by the parties) by two or more parties that trust each other. Transactions in a flash channel are almost instant, with delays only associated to network propagation. When the channel is closed by the parties, the last state of the balances of the parties is synchronized to the Tangle. This procedure eliminates a lot of overhead, supports scalability of the overall system, i.e., the HelixNetwork and enables a tremendous throughput of transactions.
30. How is the data sent?
You can use the interface provided in the official HelixWallet. Using the Interface, you will be able to publish data into the Tangle and restrict access to your needs.
31. What are possible use cases for the HelixTangle?
To give a few examples:
  • Bio data platform - BEAMS (Helix' first spin-off, more information at www.beams.ai)
  • Recording diagnostics
  • Supply Chain Transparency (Manufacturing)
  • Aircraft Maintenance, Repair, and Operations (MRO) Energy & Utilities (The era of microgrids)
  • Public transport (Train, bus)
  • Licensing (Music, movies)
  • Votes (Government)
  • Post-shipping companies (UPS, DHL)
  • Food Industry (Food tracking)
32. Do I need HLX to use the Tangle?
It is not entirely necessary to own HLX to use the Tangle. In the future, you will be able to use the Helix Tangle to store and send your data to other people securely.
33. When will the HelixTangle / Network be available?
The MainNet should be launched in Q1 of 2019.
34. How can I synchronize with Helix' progress?
To keep up to date, you can follow our Social Media Accounts, or get informed through our website and Discord server.
Helix is active on the following Social Media Platforms:
Discord: https://discordapp.com/invite/WztYaYP
Telegram: https://t.me/helixfoundation
Twitter: https://twitter.com/FoundationHelix
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Helix-Foundation-874464419427146/
LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/hcc-gmbh/
Medium: https://medium.com/helix-foundation
YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCTC_SlcpU4V9juYkIN87rKA
Bitcointalk: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=4794230.0
35. What are Helix' intentions regarding Post-Quantum-Cryptography?
Helix’ proof of work is minimal which means the difference of performance between a quantum computer (QC) and a normal computer is minimal (~QC would be roughly 100 times more efficient than an average everyday computer, in blockchain a QC would be 14 billion times more efficient than a high-end mining pool). The difference is great.
Helix uses Schnorr signatures, which are based on the discrete logarithm problem. It achieves high performance and privacy standards and is widely studied and accepted in the industry. The problem is it’s susceptibility to quantum computations (to be more specific Shor’s algorithm implementation on QCS). Although we see the quantum era as a massive threat to existing cryptographic methods, we are sure of the fact that certain attacks, which are currently only theoretically modeled, will need a few more years to become practical enough for sufficient incentive of an adversary. While Helix is determined to come up with solutions for the quantum era, we decide to take a route quite different from our predecessor. Instead of publishing “quantum proof” algorithms (that the scientific community hasn’t had a chance to study yet), now in a time where there is no practical QC attack, seems kind of premature. In a realm, where trust is the highest good, seems premature.
The general idea is to use, what achieves the best performance and security standards today, while initiating the research needed to sustain all of the computing eras that lie ahead.
36. What Helix areas and brands are worth to know?
  • HelixEcosystem - All systems, users, community associated with the HelixTangle
  • HelixTangle - Helix’ initiated P2P network protocol (a next-generation internet)
  • HelixPlatform - The place for developers and community to interact with the HelixTangle
  • HelixWallet - Interface to manage participation in the HelixEcosystem
  • HelixVirtualMachine - Provides secure access to the computing power of the HelixTangle
  • HelixComposer - Toolkit to build your dApps (decentralized use cases)
  • HelixWetware - Helix’ future initiative for a DNA-based molecular storage system
  • HelixFoundation - the Non-Profit arm of Helix to foster HelixEcosystem and R&D
  • HelixCognitiveComputing - the Commercial legal entity of HelixGroup
  • HLX - Helix Cognitive Cryptocurrency
  • BEAMS - A bio data platform powered by the HelixTangle
submitted by HelixFoundation to helixfoundation [link] [comments]

Bitcoin and Mises Regression Theorem

Hi guys,
Just wrote an article exploring Mises's Regression Theorem and Bitcoin. Text is below. Basically I hope to persuade people that Bitcoin does not need inherit value to become money.
http://www.marcolapegna.com/2017/11/24/marco-on-money-misenean-regressionpart-ii/
It’s been almost a month since my first post exploring monetary theory and crypto-currencies. I’m still working on the research into the inner workings of Bitcoin and crypto-currencies in general and while it’s been quite fun, it’s also very time consuming. So in the meantime I thought it would be nice to explore a part of monetary theory I find relevant to Bitcoin—Mises’ Regression Theorem (MRT).
I wrote about Bitcoin only one other time in a previous blog I discontinued sometime around 2013-2014. At the time there was some hype around Bitcoin and I was worried at how aggressively the libertarian community was pushing Bitcoin. My worry was that if Bitcoin turned out to be a scam, then the movement overall would take a big hit. To that effect I titled the blog post Bitcoin: Friend or Foe of Freedom?
My first thought was that Bitcoin violated MRT and hence was most likely a scam, but as I kept doing my research I changed my mind drastically.
But before we continue we should discuss what issues MRT helped to correct.
How Prices are Developed
The significant achievement of MRT is that it provides a credible theory on how prices develop in a monetary economy.
In economics 101 we all learn that prices for goods are set at the intersection of demand and supply curves. Demand curves are downward slopping indicating that that as the price of a good drops, we are willing to consume more of the said good.
This phenomenon is explained in economics by the concept of marginal utility.
Marginal utility is the derived satisfaction a consumer gets from consuming an additional unit of a good. This utility diminishes as the consumer continues to consume more of the same good. It’s safe to say we can all relate to this, for instance, most of us love chocolate, but after eating a few squares most of us will get sick if we continue to consume. Hence, our satisfaction from continuing to eat more chocolate will drop to near zero.
In economics, this is referred to as the law of diminishing marginal utility.
The law of diminishing marginal utility is why the demand curve for goods is downward slopping and in turn helps explain how the market formulates prices. This is where we run into problems though.
A demand schedule for a good is determined by the marginal utility of the good itself to the consumer, and the marginal utility of money, or simply the alternative uses of money to the consumer. However, to properly evaluate these alternative uses of money, the consumer needs existing prices of other goods in order to rank his choices. Therefore, in order for the market to formulate a price for good X, it needs the price of good Y, which in turn needs the price of good X. This circular argument represented a chasm in our collective understanding of monetary theory for a long time—until Mises came along.
Circularity and Bitcoin
But before we go on to explain how MRT addresses the problem of circularity, let us take a quick look at Bitcoin. Let us go back to 2008 when Bitcoin was first introduced into the market. Sure, you could easily argue that Bitcoin makes a better indirect means of exchange than paper money; it’s infinitely divisible, and as long as we have computers it’s more durable, it’s easily more portable than paper money, and one could easily make the argument the strength of the code has intrinsic value. This satisfies all the basic requirements for a particular good to become money in a society. Check, check, check, and check….With all that said though, how do you begin to formulate prices for goods in Bitcoin?
Let’s assume I’m a particular merchant selling my goods, how do I determine how many Bitcoins I am going to charge for my goods? My instinct is going to be to look at other merchants and see what they are charging their goods for in Bitcoin, so I can construct my own personal demand schedule for Bitcoins. Only problem is that other merchants are looking at me to do their own calculations. Hence, at first look it seems like Bitcoin is going nowhere fast.
Keep this issue in the back of your mind; we will get back to it.
Mises’ Regression Theorem
Ok so back to Mises.
Mises addressed the issue of circularity by suggesting an individual constructs his demand schedule of a certain good not by simultaneously looking at the prices of other goods on the market, but by recollecting the prices of the goods in a prior event in time. This will give the consumer a general array of prices in the economy from which he can rank his preferences and from there we can construct his demand schedule.
For example, if I am at the bread store holding $5, how do I decide how much bread to buy? First, I think of how much bread I already have at home, and rank my satisfaction of purchasing additional loaves, then I evaluate alternative uses of that $5 by recollecting previous prices of butter, fruit, and other goods. Based on these evaluations, I will rank the purchase of bread loaves either higher or lower than holding on to the $5.
While this model certainly works, the obvious problem is that at this point, the issue of circularity has been replaced by one of infinite regression. If today’s prices are determined by recollecting prices in a previous period in time, how are those prices formulated? By obviously looking at a period further back in time and so on the regression goes on indefinitely.
In MRT however, the regression is not indefinite. Eventually one would arrive at a period in time when the economy worked on a barter system. From the first instant that a merchant accepts a good from a trade not because of its end use, but because of its exchange value, the economy begins to formulate prices in terms of the accepted indirect means of exchange good. Once a particular good becomes the primary indirect means of exchange in an economy, and this good is accepted by the vast majority of participants, we term said good the “money” of that economy.
The implication of MRT is that for a good to become money, it must start out as a good that has perceived value in of itself. Otherwise it would never begin to be traded in a barter economy. After that, the qualities of durability, divisibility, and portability are essential to determine what good will function as money in a society.
Bitcoin and MRT in the Libertarian Community
There has been, there is, and will likely continue to be an intense debate in the libertarian community about the future of Bitcoin. Many of the detractors of Bitcoin use the MRT as proof that Bitcoin will never become money and hence is nothing more than either a pyramid scheme, Ponzi scheme, or fraud.
Peter Schiff is a prominent analyst and beloved figure in the libertarian community who has been a vocal detractor of Bitcoin. Although I have never seen him reference MRT directly, he employs a line of attack similar to the critics that charge Bitcoin with violating the MRT. The charge is that since Bitcoin has no end use in of itself, it has no chance to become money and hence all attempt to make it so are futile.
To Schiff, money must be a commodity. Gold for instance has a far longer history of being treated as money than bank notes; many detractors of Bitcoin—like Schiff—are in fact strong supporters of gold.
Detractors argue that gold instead of Bitcoin is perfectly compatible with MRT, since MRT explains gold’s emergence as an indirect means of exchange from the earliest barter economy to the last link between gold and the US dollar. To the gold bugs, it’s the use value of gold as jewellery that allowed gold to begin its emergence as money. Without this use, gold would never have developed as money.
Since Bitcoin really has no use or “inherit value” outside of indirect exchange, then it is in violation of MRT and hence can never become money. And since the valuations of Bitcoin are based on the future assumption that Bitcoin will become money, the whole thing is a swindle.
Why Mostly Everybody is Missing the Point
The predominant response by supporters of Bitcoin and MRT has been to come up with arguments as to how Bitcoin does indeed have some use value in of itself. In my view, some of the cases are good, while some seem downright silly. Either way this is an unnecessary step.
Bitcoin is perfectly compatible with MRT even if it has no use value.
As Davidson and Block point out in this paper (here). MRT says nothing about introducing a new indirect means of exchange in an economy that already has money. All MRT seeks to do is to explain how prices form originally, from the starting point of a barter economy.
Take central bank notes, nobody disputes that it is money in our society. Whether it’s Euros or US dollars none of these bank notes have direct uses other than possibly real expensive toilet paper. Despite this, prices for goods in terms of central bank notes developed. This is in large part because these bank notes could be converted to gold on demand, and since people had a history of the general array of gold prices in mind, this allowed them to evaluate alternative uses of these new bank notes. Now these participants in the economy could come up with new value scales that led to the creation of prices in bank notes instead of gold.
Back to Bitcoin and Circularity
Now that we have a solid understanding of MRT behind us, let’s get back to the issue of how to come up with prices of goods in terms of Bitcoin that I brought up earlier.
Well thousands of merchants are already selling their goods in Bitcoin, so how do they do it? Easy, at the time of sale they look at how much a Bitcoin is being traded for in USD and use that number to determine the Bitcoin price.
Exactly the same process that was used when central bank notes began to replace gold as money.
My aim in writing this post is not to prove how Bitcoin will undoubtedly replace central bank notes as money. There are many more factors to explore and in the end such a claim would be nothing more than speculation—that could prove to be right or wrong in the future.
My whole aim has been instead to show how Bitcoin does not need any “inherent value” to eventually succeed and become money. It is perfectly feasible for BTC to piggyback on central bank notes in order to establish prices as demonstrated by MRT.
submitted by Vecissitude to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

[uncensored-r/CryptoCurrency] Bitcoin and Mises Regression Theorem

The following post by Vecissitude is being replicated because some comments within the post(but not the post itself) have been openly removed.
The original post can be found(in censored form) at this link:
np.reddit.com/ CryptoCurrency/comments/7f74jq
The original post's content was as follows:
Hi guys,
Just wrote an article exploring Mises's Regression Theorem and Bitcoin. Text is below. Basically I hope to persuade people that Bitcoin does not need inherit value to become money.
http://www.marcolapegna.com/2017/11/24/marco-on-money-misenean-regressionpart-ii/
It’s been almost a month since my first post exploring monetary theory and crypto-currencies. I’m still working on the research into the inner workings of Bitcoin and crypto-currencies in general and while it’s been quite fun, it’s also very time consuming. So in the meantime I thought it would be nice to explore a part of monetary theory I find relevant to Bitcoin—Mises’ Regression Theorem (MRT).
I wrote about Bitcoin only one other time in a previous blog I discontinued sometime around 2013-2014. At the time there was some hype around Bitcoin and I was worried at how aggressively the libertarian community was pushing Bitcoin. My worry was that if Bitcoin turned out to be a scam, then the movement overall would take a big hit. To that effect I titled the blog post Bitcoin: Friend or Foe of Freedom?
My first thought was that Bitcoin violated MRT and hence was most likely a scam, but as I kept doing my research I changed my mind drastically.
But before we continue we should discuss what issues MRT helped to correct.
How Prices are Developed
The significant achievement of MRT is that it provides a credible theory on how prices develop in a monetary economy.
In economics 101 we all learn that prices for goods are set at the intersection of demand and supply curves. Demand curves are downward slopping indicating that that as the price of a good drops, we are willing to consume more of the said good.
This phenomenon is explained in economics by the concept of marginal utility.
Marginal utility is the derived satisfaction a consumer gets from consuming an additional unit of a good. This utility diminishes as the consumer continues to consume more of the same good. It’s safe to say we can all relate to this, for instance, most of us love chocolate, but after eating a few squares most of us will get sick if we continue to consume. Hence, our satisfaction from continuing to eat more chocolate will drop to near zero.
In economics, this is referred to as the law of diminishing marginal utility.
The law of diminishing marginal utility is why the demand curve for goods is downward slopping and in turn helps explain how the market formulates prices. This is where we run into problems though.
A demand schedule for a good is determined by the marginal utility of the good itself to the consumer, and the marginal utility of money, or simply the alternative uses of money to the consumer. However, to properly evaluate these alternative uses of money, the consumer needs existing prices of other goods in order to rank his choices. Therefore, in order for the market to formulate a price for good X, it needs the price of good Y, which in turn needs the price of good X. This circular argument represented a chasm in our collective understanding of monetary theory for a long time—until Mises came along.
Circularity and Bitcoin
But before we go on to explain how MRT addresses the problem of circularity, let us take a quick look at Bitcoin. Let us go back to 2008 when Bitcoin was first introduced into the market. Sure, you could easily argue that Bitcoin makes a better indirect means of exchange than paper money; it’s infinitely divisible, and as long as we have computers it’s more durable, it’s easily more portable than paper money, and one could easily make the argument the strength of the code has intrinsic value. This satisfies all the basic requirements for a particular good to become money in a society. Check, check, check, and check….With all that said though, how do you begin to formulate prices for goods in Bitcoin?
Let’s assume I’m a particular merchant selling my goods, how do I determine how many Bitcoins I am going to charge for my goods? My instinct is going to be to look at other merchants and see what they are charging their goods for in Bitcoin, so I can construct my own personal demand schedule for Bitcoins. Only problem is that other merchants are looking at me to do their own calculations. Hence, at first look it seems like Bitcoin is going nowhere fast.
Keep this issue in the back of your mind; we will get back to it.
Mises’ Regression Theorem
Ok so back to Mises.
Mises addressed the issue of circularity by suggesting an individual constructs his demand schedule of a certain good not by simultaneously looking at the prices of other goods on the market, but by recollecting the prices of the goods in a prior event in time. This will give the consumer a general array of prices in the economy from which he can rank his preferences and from there we can construct his demand schedule.
For example, if I am at the bread store holding $5, how do I decide how much bread to buy? First, I think of how much bread I already have at home, and rank my satisfaction of purchasing additional loaves, then I evaluate alternative uses of that $5 by recollecting previous prices of butter, fruit, and other goods. Based on these evaluations, I will rank the purchase of bread loaves either higher or lower than holding on to the $5.
While this model certainly works, the obvious problem is that at this point, the issue of circularity has been replaced by one of infinite regression. If today’s prices are determined by recollecting prices in a previous period in time, how are those prices formulated? By obviously looking at a period further back in time and so on the regression goes on indefinitely.
In MRT however, the regression is not indefinite. Eventually one would arrive at a period in time when the economy worked on a barter system. From the first instant that a merchant accepts a good from a trade not because of its end use, but because of its exchange value, the economy begins to formulate prices in terms of the accepted indirect means of exchange good. Once a particular good becomes the primary indirect means of exchange in an economy, and this good is accepted by the vast majority of participants, we term said good the “money” of that economy.
The implication of MRT is that for a good to become money, it must start out as a good that has perceived value in of itself. Otherwise it would never begin to be traded in a barter economy. After that, the qualities of durability, divisibility, and portability are essential to determine what good will function as money in a society.
Bitcoin and MRT in the Libertarian Community
There has been, there is, and will likely continue to be an intense debate in the libertarian community about the future of Bitcoin. Many of the detractors of Bitcoin use the MRT as proof that Bitcoin will never become money and hence is nothing more than either a pyramid scheme, Ponzi scheme, or fraud.
Peter Schiff is a prominent analyst and beloved figure in the libertarian community who has been a vocal detractor of Bitcoin. Although I have never seen him reference MRT directly, he employs a line of attack similar to the critics that charge Bitcoin with violating the MRT. The charge is that since Bitcoin has no end use in of itself, it has no chance to become money and hence all attempt to make it so are futile.
To Schiff, money must be a commodity. Gold for instance has a far longer history of being treated as money than bank notes; many detractors of Bitcoin—like Schiff—are in fact strong supporters of gold.
Detractors argue that gold instead of Bitcoin is perfectly compatible with MRT, since MRT explains gold’s emergence as an indirect means of exchange from the earliest barter economy to the last link between gold and the US dollar. To the gold bugs, it’s the use value of gold as jewellery that allowed gold to begin its emergence as money. Without this use, gold would never have developed as money.
Since Bitcoin really has no use or “inherit value” outside of indirect exchange, then it is in violation of MRT and hence can never become money. And since the valuations of Bitcoin are based on the future assumption that Bitcoin will become money, the whole thing is a swindle.
Why Mostly Everybody is Missing the Point
The predominant response by supporters of Bitcoin and MRT has been to come up with arguments as to how Bitcoin does indeed have some use value in of itself. In my view, some of the cases are good, while some seem downright silly. Either way this is an unnecessary step.
Bitcoin is perfectly compatible with MRT even if it has no use value.
As Davidson and Block point out in this paper (here). MRT says nothing about introducing a new indirect means of exchange in an economy that already has money. All MRT seeks to do is to explain how prices form originally, from the starting point of a barter economy.
Take central bank notes, nobody disputes that it is money in our society. Whether it’s Euros or US dollars none of these bank notes have direct uses other than possibly real expensive toilet paper. Despite this, prices for goods in terms of central bank notes developed. This is in large part because these bank notes could be converted to gold on demand, and since people had a history of the general array of gold prices in mind, this allowed them to evaluate alternative uses of these new bank notes. Now these participants in the economy could come up with new value scales that led to t...
submitted by censorship_notifier to noncensored_bitcoin [link] [comments]

Coinbase conversion question

I made a purchase of $100 of BTC with a fee of $3.84. Coinbase shows that I now have 0.02009699 BTC @ $4,784.80 per BTC.
When I run the calculation: (1/$4784.80) * $96.16 = 0.02009697375020899515131248955024 If my number were to be rounded to the 8th significant digit, it is still off from what Coinbase is showing me. Am I missing something?
I thought bitcoin was infinitely divisible, but the more I think about it, isnt this a problem if Coinbase is capping the trailing number to 8 digits, especially if the $/BTC price were to ever reach > $100,000s ?
submitted by aalbarez to CoinBase [link] [comments]

Bitcoin - Deflationary or Misunderstood?

I'm not an expert on BTC, but I keep hearing people claim bitcoin's "deflationary nature" threatens its survival. This sounds dumb to me. You can't directly compare the (eventually) stagnant BTC supply to the inflationary USD supply because in theory BTC are infinitely divisable! Sure, they only go to 8 decimal places now, but there's no reason that can't be increased in the future. If anything, it is easier for one to casually calculate the real value of their wallet - it is universally known what the exact total supply in circulation is! the only reason people believe USD to be more stable is because of its wider adoption, ie it is stable in spite of being inflationary, not because of it! To anyone who doubts this logic, I assert that there could be 1 btc instead of 21M btc and it wouldn't make a difference as long as it could be dynamically diffused into infinitely small parts. The only reason this isn't the case (or that 21m weren't released immediately) was to create the mining industry. Inflation is nothing more than a hidden tax, collected by the issuers of money. what bitcoin has taught us via the growth of the mining industry is that the "bankers" of bitcoin don't care if their profits diminish in the future as long as they get the chance right now to pay off their fixed costs and make quick profits. ASIC rigs aren't gonna sit idly once 21m is hit, as long as people can make returns >100% on their variable costs.
Ultimately, the stagnant nature of the supply will give people confidence to tie bitcoins value to tangible goods instead of USD
submitted by btcnoob to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Why Calculus Does Not Solve Zeno's Paradoxes bitcoin hack Bitcoin Intro for Intelligent Investors: Part 3 Does Big Data Spell Big Trouble? How To Find Private Key of Imported Blockchain Address

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Why Calculus Does Not Solve Zeno's Paradoxes

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